Biology (BIO)

BIO 1102  Introductory Microbiology Laboratory  (1)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 1302  
Pre-requisite(s): Credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 1302  

Isolation, culture, morphology, and biochemical activities of microorganisms. Aseptic technique, microbiological staining, environmental sampling, and identification of unknown organisms will be covered. Does not count toward a major in Biology.

BIO 1103  Human Ecology Lab: Our Place in Nature  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Credit for or concurrent enrollment in BIO 1303  

Laboratory experiments illustrating topics in human ecology such as biodiversity, population growth, and conservation.

BIO 1105  Modern Concepts of Bioscience Laboratory  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 1305 or concurrent enrollment  

Laboratory experiments illustrating modern concepts in the biological sciences, with emphasis on cell biology, metabolism, and genetics. A student will be granted a maximum of two attempts (where an earned grade or a “W” notation counts as an attempt) to earn a higher grade in BIO 1105 in order to fulfill a prerequisite or a course requirement for a degree, major, or minor.

BIO 1106  Modern Concepts of Bioscience Laboratory  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 1306 or concurrent enrollment  

Laboratory experiments illustrating modern concepts in the biological sciences, with emphasis on morphology, general physiology, and ecology. A student will be granted a maximum of two attempts (where an earned grade or a “W” notation counts as an attempt) to earn a higher grade in BIO 1106 in order to fulfill a prerequisite or a course requirement for a degree, major, or minor.

BIO 1125  Biological Research Preparedness  (1)  

An examination of the types of biological research, including an introduction to the research faculty and facilities of the Department of Biology, experimental design, safety and ethics in research, analysis of scientific data, and writing in the sciences. A discussion of career planning is included.

BIO 1302  Introductory Microbiology  (3)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 1102  
Pre-requisite(s): Credit for college-level biology or chemistry course (includes AP and/or IB credit) or consent of instructor  

Credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 1102. Introduction to microbiology including the study of microbial growth, control of growth, microbial genetics, virulence factors, epidemiology, and the wide variety of contributions microbes make to quality of life. Does not count toward a major in biology.

BIO 1303  Human Ecology: Our Place in Nature  (3)  

Ecological issues in the media, including ecosystems and biodiversity. For non-majors.

BIO 1305  Modern Concepts of Bioscience  (3)  

Unifying principles common to all levels of biological organization, with emphasis on cell biology, metabolism, and genetics. BIO 1305 is not a prerequisite for BIO 1306. A student will be granted a maximum of two attempts (where an earned grade or a “W” notation counts as an attempt) to earn a higher grade in BIO 1305 in order to fulfill a prerequisite or a course requirement for a degree, major, or minor.

BIO 1306  Modern Concepts of Bioscience, continued  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 1305 and BIO 1105; or BIO 1405 all with a C or better  

Continuation of the study of biological concepts with emphasis on morphology, general physiology, evolution, and ecology. A student will be granted a maximum of two attempts (where an earned grade or a “W” notation counts as an attempt) to earn a higher grade in BIO 1306 in order to fulfill a prerequisite or a course requirement for a degree, major, or minor.

BIO 1401  Current Issues in Human Biology  (4)  

An introductory course for non-biology majors examining biological issues in the current media, focusing primarily on the human subject.

BIO 1405  Investigations of Modern Biology Concepts I  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor  

Biological concepts with emphasis on cell biology, metabolism, and genetics. Students will work in small groups on inquiry-based projects in the area of microbiology, genetics, molecular biology, and genomics. Credit may not be received after receiving credit in BIO 1305 and BIO 1105. A student will be granted a maximum of two attempts (where an earned grade or a “W” notation counts as an attempt) to earn a higher grade in BIO 1405 in order to fulfill a prerequisite or a course requirement for a degree, major, or minor.

BIO 1406  Investigations of Modern Biology Concepts II  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor  

Biological concepts with emphasis on morphology, general physiology, evolution, and ecology. Includes field trips and small-group, hypothesis-based projects that will require outside class time. Credit may not be received after receiving credit in BIO 1306 and BIO 1106. A student will be granted a maximum of two attempts (where an earned grade or a “W” notation counts as an attempt) to earn a higher grade in BIO 1406 in order to fulfill a prerequisite or a course requirement for a degree, major, or minor.

BIO 1V90  Individual Topics  (1-9)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor and department chair  

For undergraduates who wish to study individual topics not available in formal courses of the department. Directed reading, independent study or research, supervised library, laboratory or fieldwork, or presentation of material. Open project, which must be approved by the director. May be repeated once when different topics are studied.

BIO 1V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken under the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.

BIO 2106  Genetics Laboratory  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and BIO 2306 or concurrent enrollment in BIO 2306  

Laboratory studies illustrating the principles of genetics in living organisms.

BIO 2201  Biology of Global Health  (2)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Explores the interdisciplinary nature of global health challenges and identifies biological principles that explain the emergence, virulence, and spread of infectious diseases.

BIO 2306  Genetics  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Basic principles of genetics including Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and population genetics.

BIO 2401  Human Anatomy and Physiology of Motion and Innervation  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): CHE 1300 or 1301; or consent of instructor  

The organization and movement of the human body and mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis via innervation. Topics include the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Emphasis is placed on the integration of systems as they relate to normal health. Designed for students who will pursue a career in nursing, nutrition science, and other health fields. Will not apply toward requirements for a major in biology.

BIO 2402  Human Anatomy and Physiology of Metabolism and Processing  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): CHE 1300 or 1301 and credit for college-level BIO course (includes AP and/or IB credit)  

The organization of the human body as related to metabolic processes and reproduction. Topics include the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Aspects of development and inheritance are also covered. Will not apply toward requirements for a major in biology.

BIO 2V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken under the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.

BIO 3100  Seminar in Biology  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either Bio 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and junior or senior level standing or consent of instructor  

Contemporary topics in biological sciences. Requirements may include directed readings and discussions of advanced topics in biology, attendance at public seminars, presentations, and preparation of a research paper.

BIO 3103  Ecology Laboratory  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and BIO 3303 or concurrent enrollment in BIO 3303  

Field and laboratory experiences in ecological investigations.

BIO 3110  Biology Education Theory  (1)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 3111  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of B or better  

Instructor approval required. Must also enroll in BIO 3111. Pedagogy course that integrates current learning theory and evidence-based teaching for the Learning Assistant Program.

BIO 3111  Learning Assistant Planning and Practice  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of B or better  

Credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 3110. Instructor approval required. Application of pedagogical techniques developed in BIO 3110 through the design of active learning content and the practice of student engagement in a classroom setting. May be repeated once for credit.

BIO 3122  Human Physiology Lab  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 3322  

Laboratory applies conceptual ideas through the collection and analysis of real time human data, including reaction times, electrocardiograms, electromyograms, spirometry and urinalysis.

BIO 3124  Laboratory for Entomology  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 3324; upper-level standing, and consent of instructor  

Collection, preservation, identification of insects. Collection required.

BIO 3300  Advanced Topics in Biology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Advanced topics in biology not covered in other biology courses. Can be repeated once for credit if topic is different.

BIO 3303  Ecology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Lectures and discussions that illustrate the basic concepts in evolutionary, behavioral population, community, ecosystem, and conservation ecology.

BIO 3315  Introduction to Environmental Health  (3)  
Cross-listed as ENV 3314  

See ENV 3314 for course information.

BIO 3320  Climate Change Biology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Biological and conservation responses to human-induced climate change, emphasizing the climate system, past climate influences, range shifts, phenological changes, extinction, predictive modeling, connectivity and landscape management, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and extinction risk from climate change solutions.

BIO 3322  Human Physiology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Overall GPA of 3.0 or better  

Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better. Basic physiologic principles and concepts associated with the normal function of human cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. This course is intended for the pre-profession student who requires a complex survey of human physiology.

BIO 3324  Entomology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and upper-level standing or consent of instructor  

Taxonomy, morphology, physiology, and behavior of insects.

BIO 3330  Medical Genetics  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and BIO 2106 and 2306; all with grades of C or better  

Study of Mendelian principles applied to humans, genetic defects, chromosomal aberrations, biochemical disorders, pedigrees, and probability. Genetic diagnostic techniques, gene therapy, genetic engineering, genetic counseling and the social, ethical, and legal problems associated with recent advances in genetics will be addressed.

BIO 3341  Marine Field Studies  (3)  
Cross-listed as GEO 3341  

See GEO 3341 for course information.

BIO 3342  Molecular Cell Biology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and BIO 2306 all with grades of C or better  

Students who already have credit for BIO 4307, BIO 4308, or CHE 4341 are not eligible to enroll in BIO 3342. Cell structure and function at the cellular and molecular levels. Topics include molecular components of cell membranes, membrane-bound organelles, cytoskeleton, cell division, gene regulation, and principles of bioenergetics.

BIO 3350  Genomics and Bioinformatics  (3)  
Cross-listed as BINF 3350  

See BINF 3350 for course information.

BIO 3366  Foundations of Evolutionary Biology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and BIO 2306 or consent of instructor  

Comprehensive survey of evolutionary biology, including a fundamental framework to address causative issues in the biological sciences, and an understanding of the basic processes contributing to biological diversification.

BIO 3429  Comparative Chordate Anatomy  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Structural, functional, and evolutionary relationships of the chordates, particularly vertebrates.

BIO 3435  Invertebrate Paleontology  (4)  
Cross-listed as GEO 3435  

See GEO 3435 for course information.

BIO 3V90  Individual Topics  (1-6)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and consent of instructor and department chair  

Individual topics not available in formal courses of the department. May include independent study or research, directed reading, supervised library, laboratory, or fieldwork, or presentation of material. Open to all undergraduates. Prior to registration the student will choose a project that must be approved by the director. May be repeated when different topics are studied. A maximum of 3 semester hours of Individual Topics may apply toward a major in biology.

BIO 3V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken under the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.

BIO 4001  Achievement Test  (0)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and senior standing or consent of instructor  

Biology achievement test for seniors given during fall and spring semesters. A minimum score is required to receive credit.

BIO 4102  General Microbiology Lab  (1)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 4302  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Laboratory experiments and techniques to culture microorganisms. Analyses of biochemical tests, quantitative and qualitative procedures, and identification of unknown organisms.

BIO 4104  Medical Entomology Laboratory  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; upper-level standing and credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 4304, or consent of instructor  

Collection, preservation, identification, taxonomy and biology of medically important arthropods, especially insects. Survey collection required for graduate credit.

BIO 4105  Aquatic Ecosystems Laboratory  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and BIO 3303; all with grades of C or better; and credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 4305  

Laboratory experience in basic field and laboratory methodologies for the study of aquatic ecosystems. Overview of collection, analysis and interpretation of physical, chemical and biological variables commonly used in the field.

BIO 4106  Molecular Genetics and Genomics Laboratory  (1)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 4306  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 2306 or CHE 4341; each with a grade of C or better Individual and group projects in computational genomic and genetic analysis using supplied datasets  
BIO 4108  Genes and Development Laboratory  (1)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 4308  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and BIO 2306  

Modern experimental techniques of developmental biology.

BIO 4109  Advanced Study of Genes and Development  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 4108; consent of instructor required  

Experimental techniques of genetics and developmental biology such as genome editing and genotyping taught through laboratory exercises. Includes an independent research project resulting in a publishable manuscript.

BIO 4117  Plant Physiology Lab  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and BIO 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 4317  

Laboratory experiments illustrating modern concepts in plant physiological research, with emphases on form, function relationships, technological innovations, and organismal adaption.

BIO 4123  Laboratory for Parasitology  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 4323 and consent of instructor; and upper-level or graduate standing  

Detection and identification of human parasite diagnostic forms. Power Point presentation required for graduate credit.

BIO 4199  Scientific Communication  (1)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Examination of various methods of scientific communication with critical analysis and evaluation of scientific presentations and the current scientific literature.

BIO 4301  Immunology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 2306 and one of the following: BIO 3342, 4306, 4308, or CHE 4341; all with grades of C or better  

Basic principles of resistance to disease, host-antigen interactions, immunologic response mechanisms, immunologic techniques, and correlations of disease and the immune response.

BIO 4302  General Microbiology  (3)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 4102  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

An introduction to the major areas of microbiology, including microbial morphology, metabolism, genetics, evolution, taxonomy, ecology, and disease.

BIO 4304  Medical Entomology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; upper-level standing or consent of instructor  

Identification, biology, and management of arthropod pests, especially insects, transmitting diseases affecting man, livestock and wildlife.

BIO 4305  Aquatic Ecosystems  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and BIO 3303; all with grades of C or better  

Major aquatic ecosystems including oceans, estuaries, rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, ponds and wetlands. Addresses the fundamental physical, chemical and ecological factors that govern the structure and function of each ecosystem.

BIO 4306  Molecular Genetics and Genomics  (3)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 4106  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 2306 or CHE 4341, each with a grade of C or better  

Techniques and strategies central to the analysis of genomic and genetic experimental data with emphasis on experimental design. Training in computational methods such as R and Unix; no previous computing experience is required.

BIO 4307  Biochemistry and Physiology of the Cell  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and CHE 3331 or consent of instructor; and credit or concurrent enrollment in BIO 2306  

The roles of biologically important molecules in cellular structure and function, emphasizing an integrated understanding of the characteristic of the four major classes of biological molecules and the chemical interactions that support living systems. May not receive credit for both BIO 4307 and CHE 4341.

BIO 4308  Genes and Development  (3)  
Co-requisite(s): BIO 4108  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and BIO 2306; all with grades of C or better  

Examination of mechanisms that regulate the development of multicellular organisms using biochemical genetic and cell biological approaches. Investigates the role that gene regulation, cell-cell communication, cell adhesion, cell motility, signal transduction, and intracellular trafficking play in the commitment, differentiation and assembly of stem cells into specialized cell types and organs.

BIO 4310  Biogeography  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Patterns of geographic distributions of animals and plants, and the physical and biological factors, and processes affecting geographic distributions.

BIO 4312  Viruses and Global Health  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305 or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; and BIO 2306; all with grades of C or better  

Examines virus classification, host cell infection and defenses, and how viruses cause disease in humans and animals. Emphasis placed on how viral epidemics influences history and religion, viral emergence and re-emergence in new locations, zoonotic viruses, the development of antivirals and vaccines, as well as the impact on public health and agriculture.

BIO 4317  Plant Physiology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Experimental studies of important physical and chemical processes related to plant function.

BIO 4320  Pathophysiology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 3322 with a grade of B or better  

Pathophysiology of disease with emphasis on immunology, communicable disease, neoplasia, heredity, congenital problems, and degeneration as expressed in each organ system.

BIO 4323  Parasitology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; upper-level or graduate standing or consent of instructor  

Introduction to study of parasites and vectors, emphasizing life cycles and control of those affecting humans. Research paper required for graduate credit.

BIO 4331  Science Leadership: Community-Based Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and upper-level standing and consent of instructor  

Development of science leadership skills through community-based research problems.

BIO 4333  Science Leadership: Improvement of Science Education  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and upper-level standing and consent of instructor  

Development of science leadership skills through community-based research on improvement of science education.

BIO 4339  Advanced Marine Field Studies  (3)  
Cross-listed as GEO 4339  

See GEO 4339 for course information.

BIO 4344  Fundamentals of Toxicology  (3)  
Cross-listed as ENV 4344  

See ENV 4344 for course information.

BIO 4350  Pathogenic Microbiology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and BIO 4401  

Introduction to medically relevant pathogens with an emphasis on bacterial pathogenesis.

BIO 4354  Neglected Tropical Diseases  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Core principles in genetics and cellular and molecular biology to understand the causation, pathogenesis, and control of the major neglected tropical diseases, defined as a group of poverty-promoting chronic infectious diseases.

BIO 4365  Topics in Evolution  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and BIO 2306 or consent of instructor  

Processes which establish or eliminate variation in populations and how these mechanisms affect biological diversity.

BIO 4381  Restoration Ecology  (3)  
Cross-listed as ENV 4380  

See ENV 4380 for course information.

BIO 4386  Remote Sensing  (3)  
Cross-listed as AVS 4386, ENV 4386, GEO 4386  

See GEO 4386 for course information.

BIO 4405  Limnology  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Lecture, laboratory, and field studies of lakes and streams. Emphasis on analysis and interpretation of physical, chemical, and biological factors relating to metabolism and production of aquatic communities. Overnight trips may be required.

BIO 4406  Aquatic Biology  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Laboratory and field studies of lakes, streams, and estuaries. Primarily for advanced students of zoology and botany who are interested in aquatic organisms and their ecology. Emphasis is on collection, preservation, and identification of all aquatic biota except fishes. Overnight trips may be required.

BIO 4415  Human Evolutionary Anatomy  (4)  
Cross-listed as ANT 4416  

See ANT 4416 for course description.

BIO 4416  Plant Anatomy  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Anatomy of seed plants, with emphasis on structure-function relationships that occur during growth and development.

BIO 4418  Biology of Wetland and Aquatic Vascular Plants  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and any taxonomic course  

Taxonomy, ecology, structure, distribution, and economic significance of aquatic vascular plants.

BIO 4420  Biology of the Vertebrates  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

An introduction to the biology of the vertebrates, emphasizing recognition and classification of modern taxa, adaptations to diverse lifestyles, and importance to humans in context of diseases, domestication and conservation.

BIO 4422  Ichthyology  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Fish fauna of the area with emphasis on morphology, ecology, economics, and systematics. Overnight trips may be required.

BIO 4426  Vertebrate Histology  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): BIO 3322 with a grade of C or better  

Microscopic structure of vertebrate tissues and organs.

BIO 4427  Biology of Mammals  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

An introduction to the biology of mammals, emphasizing recognition and classification of modern taxa, adaptations to diverse lifestyles, and importance to humans in context of diseases, domestication and conservation.

BIO 4428  Ornithology  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better  

Evolution, morphology, physiology, behavior, reproduction, ecology, geography, and migration of birds of the world. Includes field identification of Central Texas species.

BIO 4430  Vertebrate Paleontology  (4)  
Cross-listed as GEO 4430  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor  

Evolutionary history and biogeography of vertebrate animals, based primarily on fossil evidence. Laboratory activities include study of fossil material, field excavations, and visits to museums.

BIO 4431  Comparative Vertebrate Physiology  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and upper-level standing; or consent of instructor  

Vertebrate physiology in a comparative evolutionary context. Emphasis on general principles, with unique examples supplied from all major vertebrate taxa.

BIO 4432  General Human Anatomy  (4)  
Pre-requisite(s): Overall GPA of 3.0 or better  

Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better. The organs and systems of the human body emphasizing relationships between structure, function, development and microscopic anatomy.

BIO 4V04  Biology Field Studies  (1-9)  
Pre-requisite(s): Either BIO 1105 and 1305, or BIO 1405; and either BIO 1106 and 1306, or BIO 1406; all with grades of C or better; and consent of instructor  

Organisms, environments, and methods of field study. Available for one to four hours of credit, with each hour of credit corresponding to one week of study in field. Four hours required to satisfy field course requirement.

BIO 4V75  Clinical Laboratory Science Internship  (6-12)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor; for Clinical Laboratory Science majors only  

Highly intensive clinical training at an affiliated institution in preparation for national certification as a clinical laboratory scientist. A grade of “C-“ or better is required for course credit. Can be taken for 6 to 12 hours per semester for a maximum of 4 times with a total of no more than 42 hours.

BIO 4V90  Advanced Research Project  (1-3)  
Pre-requisite(s): 3 hours of BIO 3V90, upper-level standing, consent of instructor and department chair  

Independent research project conducted under the supervision of a faculty member. May be repeated for a total of 3 hours. Presentation of the project required at the end of each semester. Presentation and defense of thesis required for third semester hour.

BIO 4V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken under the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.