Philosophy (PHI)

PHI 1301  Introductory Topics in Philosophy  (3)  

A writing-intensive introduction the major philosophical topics, themes, and thinkers. Students develop the ability to read texts critically and to write well-researched argumentative essays about perennial philosophical questions.

PHI 1302  Introduction to Philosophy (Non-writing Intensive)  (3)  

An introduction to the major philosophical topics, themes, and thinkers. Students develop the ability to read texts critically.

PHI 1306  Logic  (3)  

A study of the basic principles and methods for distinguishing good and bad reasoning across a broad range of contexts, with an emphasis on deductive reasoning. Students develop formal tools to identify, reconstruct, and evaluate arguments, and to compose argumentative essays of their own.

PHI 1307  Critical Thinking  (3)  

The development of critical, coherent, and creative thinking, including understanding, analyzing, and evaluating the claims of others, organizing ideas clearly, and constructing sound arguments. Development of sensitivity to argumentation technique and to the language in which arguments are expressed, with particular attention to the persuasive techniques of advertising and other controversial issues in the mass media.

PHI 1308  Contemporary Moral Problems  (3)  

An introduction to philosophical issues and theories associated with the normative assessment of human behavior through engagement with one or more contemporary social issues such as poverty, war, immigration, affirmative action, drug legalization, abortion, sexuality, animal rights, and the environment.

PHI 1309  Introduction to Medical Ethics  (3)  

Introduction to philosophical reasoning regarding medical ethics, including confidentiality, intervention in the beginning and ending of human life, and just distribution of medical resources.

PHI 1310  Computer Ethics  (3)  

Analysis of ethical problems for information technologies. Topics include ethical implications of new possibilities in information technologies, privacy, ownership, professional codes of conduct as they relate to society, and role of information technologies in shaping morality of government, education, politics, business, and society.

PHI 1V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of the instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken with the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.

PHI 2301  Existentialism  (3)  

An examination and evaluation of philosophical themes and methods in existentialist writings. Themes such as freedom, anxiety, despair, nothingness, alienation, death, God, the impotence of reason, the conflict between individuality and the dehumanizing tendencies of mass society, and the conflict between authentic self and inauthentic self are considered. Attention is focused upon the work of such thinkers as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Heidegger, Marcel, Sartre, and Camus.

PHI 2303  Philosophy in Literature  (3)  

A critical engagement of the philosophical ideas represented in selected literary texts, such as science fiction, dystopian fiction, the inklings, or existentialist literature, indicated by course subtitle. Examines a wide variety of philosophical topics with special attention to the role of imagination.

PHI 2305  Philosophy and Religion  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Students will be required to take the English Placement Exam (EPE) before registering for a course on the Research Writing Distribution List, unless they have achieved one of the following: A score of 20 or above on the English component of the ACT, or a score of 500 or above on the Critical Reading component of the old SAT or 28 or above on the Reading component of the new SAT  

A writing-intensive introduction to philosophical issues arising from religious belief and practice. Students develop the ability to read texts critically, and to write clear argumentative essays about such topics as faith and reason, the problem of evil, and the coherence of doctrines like atonement and incarnation.

PHI 2308  Philosophical Texts  (3)  

A study of central philosophical texts in their historical context and for their enduring philosophical contributions. Possible texts include Plato's Republic; Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Augustine's Confessions, St. Thomas's Summa, Descartes' Meditations, Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling, and Nietzche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra. May be taken a maximum of two times if different topics, not to exceed six semester hours.

PHI 2309  Philosophical Traditions  (3)  

An introductory study of a central philosophical tradition in its historical context and for its enduring philosophical contribution. Possible traditions include existentialism, feminism, political liberalism, pragmatism, post-modernism, naturalism, positivism, and scholasticism. May be taken a maximum of two times if different topics, not to exceed six semester hours.

PHI 2310  Law, Science and Society  (3)  

A study of philosophical issues arising at the intersections of law, morality, science, and society. The course will consider such issues as the proper relation between morality and law, civil disobedience, racism, feminism, equal opportunity and justice, abortion, euthanasia, animal rights, punishment, pornography, creationism, and moral aspects of technological development.

PHI 2370  Business Ethics  (3)  

An analysis of moral issues that arise within the economic sphere of society and specifically within profit and nonprofit organizations. The nature and justification of moral decision making will be examined. Topics may include moral issues involving the relationships between business and other social organizations, ecology, the social responsibility of entrepreneurs, and personnel and policy decisions.

PHI 2V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of the instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken with the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.

PHI 3301  Moral Philosophy  (3)  

A critical study of problems in moral judgment and evaluation, with analysis of presuppositions and justifications used in moral discourse. Problems such as freedom and determinism, relativism and absolutism, conflicts of duties and ends, grounds of moral obligation, and choices involving personal and social goals are also studied. This course will introduce students to a number of major primary sources in the history of moral philosophy.

PHI 3305  British Philosophy and Culture  (3)  

This course is designed for Baylor University's study-abroad program. (Note: see section in this catalog regarding foreign study.) While the specific course content will vary with the instructor, attention will be given to the way issues have been addressed by philosophers in the British Isles such as Thomas More, Francis Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, John Stuart Mill, Wittgenstein, Bertrand Russell, and Gilbert Ryle. The philosophical ideas of literary figures such as Jane Austen, Robert Browning, and William Wordsworth may also be considered. Discussions will be developed in the rich settings of cathedrals, theaters, universities, and museums.

PHI 3310  History of Philosophy: Classical Philosophy  (3)  

Historical context in which philosophy developed and how the original issues of philosophy continue to inform historical and contemporary philosophical debate. Emphasizes the reading of primary sources: Homer, Hesiod, the pre-Socratics, the Sophists, Plato, and Aristotle, and the study of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Skepticism.

PHI 3312  History of Philosophy: Modern European Philosophy  (3)  

A study of the major developments in philosophy from the Renaissance through the first half of the nineteenth century. The demise of late Scholasticism, the rise of modern science, the philosophies of the Continental Rationalists and the British Empiricists, the critical philosophy of Kant, and German Idealism are considered. Philosophers studied include Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche.

PHI 3318  Philosophy and Constitutional Issues  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing  

The examination of certain philosophical issues that are raised by the U.S. Constitution, and especially by the Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment.

PHI 3320  Philosophical Issues in Feminism  (3)  

A critical study of philosophical issues in feminism including moral issues of equal rights and justice, sex role stereotypes, equal opportunity and reverse discrimination, equality between the sexes, abortion, and philosophers' theories of feminism. Topics may vary from semester to semester.

PHI 3322  Philosophy and the Arts  (3)  
Cross-listed as ARTH 3390  

A survey of the major contemporary sources in aesthetics. Problems discussed are concerned with the aesthetic experience, the interpretation of art (including the definition of art, the nature of metaphor, the relation of art to knowledge, meaning in art), and criticism in literature and other art forms.

PHI 3339  Law and Religion  (3)  
Cross-listed as PSC 3339, REL 3339  

Relationships between government and religion, especially, United States Supreme Court decisions dealing with prayer and Bible reading in public schools, government aid to church-related schools, and religious liberty rights of individuals and churches. Philosophical debates about the nature of religious free exercise and establishment, their justification, and their relationship to different political theories. Note for undergraduate religion majors: This course will be accepted as three elective hours on a religion major, but will not be accepted for credit on a minor in religion or toward the six hour religion requirement by the University.

PHI 3395  Historiography and the Philosophy of History  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Six semester hours of history or consent of instructor  

An introduction to ancient, medieval, and modern historiography and the development of the philosophy of history. Critical consideration will be given to traditional thought about concepts fundamental to history, including the ideas of historical explanation, purpose, cause, and interpretation. Emphasis will be given to methods of historical research and writing.

PHI 3V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of the instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken with the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.

PHI 4300  History of Medicine  (3)  
Cross-listed as HIS 4300, MH 4300  

See MH 4300 for course information.

PHI 4301  War and Morality  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing or consent of instructor  

An analysis of the moral and philosophical issues arising from military operations around the world, whether formal or informal, historical and contemporary.

PHI 4310  Philosophy of Science  (3)  

An analysis of philosophical problems about science. Such central concepts as law, causation, induction, hypothesis, theory, verification, and models are studied. Presuppositions and methodologies of different sciences may be examined. The relation of scientific views to moral, social, and metaphysical problems is considered.

PHI 4311  Epistemology  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Two PHI courses or consent of instructor  

A critical examination of classical and current problems in theories of knowledge. Attention is given to such problems as meaning, truth, the knowing situation, universals, knowledge of the external world and of other minds, and validation of knowledge claims. The contributions of recent movements such as logical empiricism, linguistic analysis, phenomenology may be studied.

PHI 4314  History of Philosophy: Patristic and Medieval  (3)  

The history and development of philosophy from 250 to 1400 A.D. Some of the major philosophers studied include Augustine, Boethius, John Scotus Erigena, Anselm, Abelard, Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham. Special emphasis will be placed on the significance of pre-Enlightenment thinkers to the development of the Enlightenment and Modernity.

PHI 4317  Philosophy of Mind  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Two PHI courses or consent of instructor  

Critical examination of current problems in philosophy of mind, focusing on the relationship between mind and physical world. Central issues include the nature of consciousness, and the nature of mental content; secondary topics may include, reductionism, functionalism, non-reductive materialism, epiphenomenalism, panpsychism, and dualisms of various forms.

PHI 4318  Philosophy of Law  (3)  

A critical study of historical and contemporary approaches to primary issues in jurisprudence and the philosophy of law, including tort law, criminal law, and Constitutional law.

PHI 4319  Philosophical Writing, Research and Oral Presentation  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing and consent of instructor  

Enhancing philosophical writing skills, promoting proficiency with new computer research technologies, and refining oral communication skills.

PHI 4320  The Philosophy of Religion  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Two PHI courses or consent of instructor  

A philosophical inquiry into such topics as the existence and nature of God, religious experience, immortality, the problem of evil, the relationship between reason and faith, the meaning of religious language and symbols, and the validity of religious knowledge claims. Methods of contemporary philosophical analysis are used in clarifying religious concepts.

PHI 4321  Metaphysics  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Two philosophy courses or consent of instructor  

A critical analysis of classical and contemporary metaphysical systems and problems. These include the world views found in the philosophies of naturalism, idealism, personalism, positivism, pragmatism, organicism, and existentialism. Problem areas considered are mind-body relations, cosmology, ontology, philosophical anthropology, universals, determinism, and freedom. Basic categories such substance, cause, time, space, matter, and form are critically examined. Attention also is focused upon methods and criteria employed in metaphysical study.

PHI 4324  Philosophy in Literature  (3)  

A critical study of philosophical material in literature, that is, a study of the philosophy to be found in essays, novels, poems, and plays. Among the authors usually studied are Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Lucretius, Voltaire, Goethe, Ibsen, Nietzsche, Kafka, Camus, Sartre, Malraux, Hesse and selected contemporary novelists.

PHI 4325  Literary and Philosophical Perspectives on Medicine  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Open to Philosophy and Medical Humanities majors and minors only; or consent of instructor  

Examination of literature dealing with illness, disease, pain, and death in order to understand better how societal perceptions and values of the care-giver affect the patient.

PHI 4331  Latin American Philosophy  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing  

Philosophical and intellectual movements in Latin America from the colonial times to the present. These movements include scholasticism, eclecticism, utilitarianism, romanticism, positivism, vitalism, phenomenology, and existentialism and philosophies of liberation. Works of major representatives of these movements (including such men as Bello, Mora, Sierra, Varona, Deustua, Caso, Korn, Vasconcelos, Farias Brito, Vaz Ferreira, and Romero) are studied.

PHI 4340  East Asian Philosophy  (3)  
Cross-listed as AST 4340  

An historical and critical survey of the major movements in Chinese, Indian, or Japanese philosophy. Course may be repeated once with different area of concentration.

PHI 4341  Contemporary Continental Philosophy  (3)  

A critical study of philosophical movements in Europe during the past one hundred and fifty years. Some of the major philosophers studied include Nietzsche, Husserl, Adorno, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, de Beauvoir, Wittgenstein, Russell, Carnap, Gadamer, Habermas, Lyotard, Foucault, and Derrida. Movements studied include phenomenology, positivism, naturalism, critical theory, existentialism, structuralism, deconstructionism, and post modernism. Course may be repeated once with a different area of concentration.

PHI 4342  Contemporary American Philosophy  (3)  

A critical study of philosophical movements in the United States during the past one hundred years. Some of the philosophers whose works are studied include Pierce, James, Royce, Dewey, Mead, Lewis, Santayana, Whitehead, and Quine. Recent movements such as critical realism, naturalism, humanism, personalism, logical positivism, and linguistic analysis are also studied.

PHI 4345  Intermediate Logic  (3)  
Cross-listed as MTH 3345, PHI 3345  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing  

The language of first-order logic as a formal deductive system.

PHI 4353  Philosophy of Language  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Prerequisite(s): Two PHI courses or consent of instructor  

Critical examination of the basic problems in general semantics and philosophy of language, giving special attention to the major authors in these fields.

PHI 4360  Contemporary Ethical Theory  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Two philosophy courses or consent of instructor  

Major issues in contemporary ethical writings. Course may be repeated once for credit if topic varies.

PHI 4361  Social Philosophy  (3)  
Cross-listed as PSC 4353  

A critical survey of the fundamental concepts and theories used in justifying social institutions. Problems such as authority, law, freedom, rights, equality, responsibility, power, justice, the state, and justification of open societies are considered.

PHI 4363  Philosophy and Medicine  (3)  

Philosophical approaches to clinical medicine and contemporary health care, focusing on experience as a basis for knowledge.

PHI 4365  Jewish Philosophy  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing or consent of instructor  

Jewish philosophy in the twentieth century, with emphasis on the relation between mortality and morality, justice and totalitarianism, faith after the Holocaust, and individualism and revolution.

PHI 4379  Islam and Democracy  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing  

Examines the evolution of political philosophy and institutions in Muslim culture.

PHI 4385  Religious Ethics in a Liberal Democracy  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Upper-level standing  

Addresses both historical and contemporary arguments about the relationship between religious morality and liberal democracy. Pays particular attention to the debate about the role of religious forms of ethics/morality in public debate, public choices, and the decisions of political actors.

PHI 4V99  Special Topics in Philosophy  (1-3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Senior or graduate standing and consent of instructor  

Faculty-directed individual, group, or class research project. Course may be taken up to three times with a different topic for a maximum of 9 credit hours.

PHI 4V9R  Research  (3)  
Pre-requisite(s): Consent of the instructor  

Undergraduate research undertaken with the supervision of a faculty member. May be taken for a maximum of 6 hours.